History of Corfu

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Historic Times

Medieval Period

First Venetian period

Second Venetian period

First French Occupation

Russo – Turkish Occupation

Second French Occupation

British Rule

The Union of Corfu



Corfu in the World War 1 & 2

Historical Places on Corfu

Corfu Churches and Monastery

Corfu – Old & New Fortress

Corfu Museum

Corfu old pictures

Corfu Stamps & Covers-Cards & Money




Old maps Corfu

Corfu (Kerkyra) map 

Corfu (Kerkyra) map 


Corfu (Kerkyra) map 

Corfu (Kerkyra) map 










History 

First human traces in Corfu,
 
First human tracks appeared on Corfu in the last ice age. Kerkyra was not an island but rather a siting of the mainland. In the territory of the Korrision-Lagune tools were found from the Middle Palaeolithic (50 000 –  40 000 B.C. ). In the New Stone Age (10 000 – 2500 BC) was already an island Corfu. Prehistoric settlements, among others, have been in Afionas, Messongi Dassia discovered and on the river.
 
Recent history – Kings of Anjou (1267 – 1386),

In 1267 Corfu fell in Naples the prevailing Karl of Anjou. A hundred years ago in this dominion was the Orthodox Church of the “new masters” combat. In the year 1386 joined voluntarily Venice to Corfu.

Were colonised after (1386 – 1797)

On 28 May 1386 the Venetian flag was hoisted. From the following flowering of culture today still reflects the old town of Corfu. The reign was absolutely hierarchical structures, which the inhabitants in aristocrats, civil and the people divided.
In the expectation of further attacks by the Ottomans was Corfu in the 16. and 17. century strategically converted. 1716 The city was besieged and 33 000 Turks were again Matthias Graf Schulenburg with its 8000 man. Due to the weather but the attackers went back. For the Greeks seemed a miracle, which is attributed to the holy St. Spiridon.
This was the last siege of the island of Corfu by the Turks.
It took almost a century of peace, which the craftsmen and merchants of the city in this time prosperity.
 
French regime (1797 – 1807),

On 17 October 1797 the Ionian Islands were transferred the French. The victories of Napoleon in Europe were generally admired. The france revolution existing social order and led to free trade.
Initial enthusiasm soon faded however, since merchants with high taxes and the religious sentiment of the Corfiots by the atheism of the occupiers has been severely disrupted.
The French invaders were soon due to inadequate maritime links and bottlenecks in distress and helped with a contractual loan, which the dissatisfaction of the population grew strongly.
The French was by the Turks and their alliance with Russia declared war. Drove out the French and the seven-island-state has been proclaimed. In the Russian time was the government led by Ioannis Capodistrias, until the islands of Russia back to France in 1807.
 
Corfu under the imperial France (1807 – 1814)

France tried to reduce the British influence in the Mediterranean and supported the efforts of the Greeks after independence. In this time the French built the Liston with the arcades.
France lost ground in Europe due to the Russian war and the British are pushing for the Ionian Islands. In the Corfu April 1814 occupied the English without fighting. A year later the Ionian Islands were at the Congress of Paris, on the British forces.
 
The Ionian Islands (1814 – 1864)

Was formerly the first Thomas Maitland. Reminder on his arrival it was (“Maitland Rotonda”) who built in the upper part of the Spianada. The Ionian Islands received a new constitution.
The state religion was the Greek Orthodox faith. Greek became the official language.
The British built the infrastructure, and the water and sewage system of the city was under the reign of Sir Frederick Adam built. It is a monument of today in the Park of the palace.
The English influences are today by the shandy and the facility at the Esplanada.
1828 Ioannis Capodistrias was first President of Greece. The political career of important statesman ended four years later by his murder 1831 in Nafplion. The Greek king of the Bavarian Prince Otto was appointed. Assignment of the Ionian Islands to Greece King Otto the acts were often not in the interest of the British and he was discontinued.
England he put the him agreeable Georg of Denmark and handed over in return for which the Ionian Islands in Greece in 1864. On the 21.May 1864 found the surender instead and since then, the local national holiday on May 21, the Ionian Islands
 
Corfu Greece,

Corfu in 1864 – 1912 the rural in the course of the last centuries was subject to only a few changes. The island remained underdeveloped. There was universal suffrage for men only and all members of parliament in 1864 were “farmers”. They came to debt relief in the Corfiot gastronomic delicacies tenants. Until 1912, a law was passed, what are the farmers of their debt burden (permanent) free. The landed gentry lost the last power that he had exercised on the former serfs. In 1865 a law was to educate, by the closure of the Ionian Academy and the higher schools. The deficit should be offset by private schools. The majority of the “Farmer group” didn’t last long. By pressure of the Conservative was divided the island in three constituencies – in Corfu Town, Oros and Mesis. Corfiot municipality was established by a royal decree in 1866.
 
1912 – 1940,

By the decline of Turkey back to England was dominating power in the Mediterranean.
During the 1.World War II the island was occupied by the French peacefully. Greece was politically and economically unstable and at the beginning of the 20th century involved in several wars against Turkey. Only from September 1922 there was again a change in values and peace seemed to have taken place.
 
The 2. World War II,

Italy had it with the torpedoing a Greek destroyer on a declaration of war, which on 28.October 1940 was prompt. Three days later the city was being bombed, what 200 deaths and called for substantial damage. On 28.April 1941 attended the Italian army the island. The Italians were not accepted by the population and could not succeed. After losing the war with Greece Italy owed nor the German presence in Corfu only allies. After Mussolini was sold in Italy, it was a German/Italian conflict stationed in Corfu and the Italians had to fight against their former allies.
On 14.September 1943 bombed the German the town of Corfu. The island Probably suffered the most serious damage in its history. One-third of the city in ruins, many houses badly damaged.
The rubble later served as a filler for the airport built in the 1950s in the Chalikopoulos-Lagune.

German occupation, the “Edelweiss-division” landed in Corfu Lefkimmi and moved on to the city.
On 25.September 1943 the island was busy. The Italian soldiers who refused to support, were shot. Over 2000 korfiots Jews were deported to Germany in the summer of 1944.
Less than 100 came back. Below the new fortress look today, a memorial to their fate.
With the German defeats on the eastern front was the end of the war. In 1944 the English fought to the Ionian Islands and the German went in the October 1944.
 
1945 UNTIL TODAY – modern history,

The normal population lived in the post-war period at the lower minimum subsistence level and more and more Corfiots immigrated in this time abroad and/or to Athens. A new era began in 1951 with the opening of the “Club Mediterranean” in Ipsos. The tourism industry had started and brought a large variety of changes with the largest boom, which began in the 1960s ultimately and prosperity on the island.
Political forces of conservative politicians Constantine Karamanlis trail from 1955 several governments. Greece should be brought closer to Western Europe. In 1962, Greece became a Member State of the EEC. George Papandreou won with the EDA-party 1963 elections.
King Constantine II made him but due to a dispute and it came to strikes and demonstrations for May 1967 in relation to the elections.

Military dictatorship,

To this choice in the May 1967 it was not, because rights officers coup d’etat on 04.21.1967 and built a dictatorship. Censorship was introduced, active left were arrested, strikes and trade unions were prohibited. In December 1967 King Constantine II tried to gain the upper hand again and finally had to go into exile.

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